Urology is also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs. Organs under the domain of urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs.

The urinary and reproductive tracts are closely linked, and disorders of one often affect the other. Thus a major spectrum of the conditions managed in urology exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. Urology combines the management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) conditions, such as urinary-tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, with the management of surgical conditions such as bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence.

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Tur-p,Open Prostatectomy :

Open prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate gland. It is done under a general or spinal anesthetic. Usually, an incision is made through the lower abdomen, although sometimes the incision is made between the rectum and the base of the penis. A catheter may be placed in the bladder through the lower abdominal skin to help flush the bladder (postoperative bladder irrigation) and another catheter comes out of the penis to drain the urine.

ESWL, PCNL, Pyelolithotomy :

The term pyelo means renal pelvis, and the term lithotomy means removal of stone. Since the advent of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) and percutaneous nephropyelolithotomy (PCN), pyelolithotomy is becoming an uncommon surgery in most developing countries. However, before these newer technologies, pyelolithotomy was the procedure of choice for stones within the renal pelvis, including stones that demonstrated minimal invasion into calyces and infundibulum.

Ureterolithotomy :

Ureterolithotomy refers to the open or laparoscopic surgical removal of a stone from the ureter. Today in the United States, ureterolithotomy is seldom performed given the advent and rise of minimally invasive procedures for fragmentation and removal. Minimally invasive options are now preferable and include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and endoscopic techniques such as ureteroscopy (URS) with laser lithotripsy and stone basketing, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).


The human immune system is normally highly effective in managing exposure to the constant array of environmental antigens encountered. However, there are many instances where the immune response is ineffective in clearing infection or tumors. T cell responses, particularly cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, are critical in controlling viral infection or abnormal cellular growth and the failure of this response is a large factor in the inability to control these conditions.

VIU, BMG Urethroplasty :

VIU (Visual Internal Urethrotomy-to incise the stricture with an endoscope) is advocated for short bulbar strictures only once. The results are bad in penile urethral strictures. And it is not advocated for traumatic strictures. Cure is possible in most patients for traumatic urethral strictures by excision of the stricture and anastomotic urethroplasty. It is applicable to bulbar urethral trauma and fractured pelvis and ruptured posterior urethra.

Pyeloplasty :

Pyeloplasty is the surgical reconstruction or revision of the renal pelvis to drain and decompress the kidney. Most commonly it is performed to treat an uretero-pelvic junction obstruction if residual renal function is adequate. This revision of the renal pelvis treats the obstruction by excising the stenotic area of the renal pelvis or uretero-pelvic junction and creating a more capacious conduit using the tissue of the remaining ureter and renal pelvis.

Urethroplasty :

Urethroplasty is a surgery where the urethra is reconstructed to cure problems like urethral strictures. The types of surgeries are varied and depend upon the location, cause, and length of the stricture. Most surgeries take between three to six hours to complete. There are four commonly used types of urethroplasty performed; anastomotic, buccal mucosal onlay graft, scrotal or penile island flap (graft), and Johansen's urethroplasty.

Hypospadias Repair :

Hypospadias repair is surgery to correct a defect in the opening of the penis that is present at birth. The urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body) does not end at the tip of the penis. Instead, it ends on the underside of the penis. In more severe cases, the urethra opens at the middle or bottom of the penis, or in or behind the scrotum.

Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair :

If VVF is diagnosed within the first few days of surgery, a transurethral or suprapubic catheter should be placed and maintained for up to 30 days. Small fistulas (< 1 cm) may resolve or decrease during this period if caution is used to ensure proper continuous drainage of the catheter.

Stress Urinary Incontinence Surgery :

Vaginal sling procedures are types of surgeries that help control stress urinary incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough, sneeze, lift things, or exercise. The procedure helps close your urethra and bladder neck.The surgical options available to you depend on the type of urinary incontinence you have. Most options for urinary incontinence surgery treat stress incontinence

Renal Cyst Excision :

cyst removal is the treatment of choice for most patients with numerous or very large cysts. The laparoscopic approach is best for removing a large number of cysts and for those with a condition called adult polycystic kidney disease (APCKD). In this procedure, three little incisions are made into the abdomen so that small surgical instruments can enter the abdomen and the kidney. This is usually an outpatient procedure. However, when many cysts have to be removed from both kidneys at the same time.

Augmentation Cystoplasty :

Bladder augmentation, also called augmentation cystoplasty, is a surgical procedure used in adults and children who lack adequate bladder capacity or detrusor compliance. For many patients, augmentation cystoplasty can provide a safe, functional reservoir that allows for urinary continence and prevention of upper tract deterioration. Both neuropathic and non-neuropathic causes for severe bladder dysfunction exist in pediatric and adult populations

Chordee Correction :

Chordee is a condition in which the head of the penis curves downward or upward, at the junction of the head and shaft of the penis. The curvature is usually most obvious during erection, but resistance to straightening is often apparent in the flaccid state as well. In many cases but not all, chordee is associated with hypospadias. This is not the same condition as Peyronie's disease, which involves curvature of the shaft of the penis most commonly due to injury during adult life.